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Although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power; the Minister of State is the head of government.
The officeholder can be either a Monegasque or French citizen; the monarch consults with the Government of France before an appointment. The House of Grimaldi has ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since Despite Monaco's independence and separate foreign policy, its defence is the responsibility of France.
However, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the country's first casino, Monte Carlo , as well as a railway connection to Paris.
In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking centre and has sought to diversify its economy into the services sector and small, high-value-added , non-polluting industries.
The state has no income tax , low business taxes and is well known for being a tax haven. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union EU , but it participates in certain EU policies , including customs and border controls.
The principality has a club football team, AS Monaco , who compete in the French Ligue 1 and have become French champions on multiple occasions.
A centre of research into marine conservation , Monaco is home to one of the world's first protected marine habitats,  an Oceanographic Museum and the International Atomic Energy Agency Environment Labs, which is the only marine laboratory in the United Nations structure.
Monaco's name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony. According to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods.
Because the only temple of this area was the "House" of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. An ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi , contested it for a hundred years before actually gaining control.
Though the Republic of Genoa would last until the 19th century, they allowed the Grimaldi family to keep Monaco, and, likewise, both France and Spain left it alone for hundreds of years.
France did not annex it until the French Revolution , but after the defeat of Napoleon it was put under the care of the Kingdom of Sardinia.
In the 19th century, when Sardinia became a part of Italy , the region came under French influence again but France allowed it to remain independent.
Like France, Monaco was overrun by the Axis powers during the Second World War and for a short time was administered by Italy, then the Third Reich , before finally being liberated.
Although the occupation lasted for just a short time, it meant the deportation of the Jewish population and execution of several resistance members from Monaco.
Since then Monaco has been independent. It has taken some steps towards integration with the European Union.
Francesco, however, was evicted only a few years after by the Genoese forces, and the struggle over "the Rock" continued for another century. However, the Genoese became engaged in other conflicts, and in the late s Genoa lost Monaco in conflict with the Crown of Aragon over Corsica.
In , the Grimaldi family purchased Monaco from the Crown of Aragon and became the official and undisputed rulers of "the Rock of Monaco".
The princes of Monaco thus became vassals of the French kings while at the same time remaining sovereign princes.
The principality continued its existence as a protectorate of France until the French Revolution.
In , Revolutionary forces captured Monaco and until it was occupied by the French in this period much of Europe had been overrun by the French armies under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Before this time there was unrest in Menton and Roquebrune , where the townspeople had become weary of heavy taxation by the Grimaldi family.
They declared their independence, hoping for annexation by Sardinia. France protested. These were ceded to France in return for 4,, francs.
In , the principality stopped collecting income tax from its residents—an indulgence the Grimaldi family could afford to entertain thanks solely to the extraordinary success of the casino.
Until the Monegasque Revolution of forced the adoption of the constitution , the princes of Monaco were absolute rulers.
The treaty, endorsed in by the Treaty of Versailles , established that Monegasque international policy would be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests, and resolved the Monaco Succession Crisis.
In , the Italian Army invaded and occupied Monaco, forming a fascist administration. On 19 April , Prince Rainier married the American actress Grace Kelly , an event that was widely televised and covered in the popular press, focusing the world's attention on the tiny principality.
A amendment to the constitution abolished capital punishment, provided for women's suffrage , and established a Supreme Court of Monaco to guarantee fundamental liberties.
In , a crisis developed when Charles de Gaulle blockaded Monaco, angered by its status as a tax haven for wealthy French citizens.
The film Grace of Monaco is loosely based on this crisis. In , the Principality of Monaco became a member of the United Nations , with full voting rights.
In , a new treaty between France and Monaco specified that, should there be no heirs to carry on the Grimaldi dynasty, the principality would still remain an independent nation rather than revert to France.
Monaco's military defence, however, is still the responsibility of France. On 31 March , Rainier III, who was too ill to exercise his duties, relinquished them to his only son and heir, Albert.
Following a period of official mourning, Prince Albert II formally assumed the princely crown on 12 July ,  in a celebration that began with a solemn Mass at Saint Nicholas Cathedral , where his father had been buried three months earlier.
Monaco had previously considered an expansion in , but had called it off. Monaco has been governed under a constitutional monarchy since , with the Sovereign Prince of Monaco as head of state.
Under the constitution, the prince shares his veto power with the unicameral National Council.
The principality's city affairs are directed by the Communal Council ,  which consists of 14 elected members and is presided over by a mayor.
Monaco is the second-smallest country by area in the world ; only Vatican City is smaller. There is no geographical distinction between the State and City of Monaco, although responsibilities of the government state-level and of the municipality city-level are different.
The municipalities were merged into one in , after accusations that the government was acting according to the motto " divide and conquer ," [ citation needed ] [ how?
An additional ward was planned by new land reclamation to be settled beginning in  but Prince Albert II announced in his New Year Speech that he had ended plans due to the economic climate at the time.
Monaco is divided into ten wards , with their official numbers; either Fontvieille II or Le Portier would become the effective eleventh ward, if built:   .
The wider defence of the nation is provided by France. Monaco has no navy or air force, but on both a per-capita and per-area basis, Monaco has one of the largest police forces police officers for about 36, people and police presences in the world.
There is also a small military force. The company numbers exactly officers and men; while the NCOs and soldiers are local, the officers have generally served in the French Army.
In addition to their guard duties as described, the Carabiniers patrol the principality's beaches and coastal waters. Monaco is a sovereign city state , with five quartiers and ten wards,  located on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
It has an area of 2. Saint-Jean is the longest flowing body of water, around 0. After a recent [ when? Land reclamation projects include extending the district of Fontvieille.
There is a neighbouring French port called Cap d'Ail that is near Monaco. Monaco exhibits a wide range of architecture, but the principality's signature style, particularly in Monte Carlo, is that of the Belle Epoque.
Decorative elements include turrets, balconies, pinnacles, multi-coloured ceramics, and caryatids. These were blended to create a picturesque fantasy of pleasure and luxury, and an alluring expression of how Monaco sought and still seeks, to portray itself.
Following major development in the s, Prince Rainier III banned high-rise development in the principality. Monaco has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate Köppen climate classification : Csa , with strong maritime influences, with some resemblances to the oceanic climate Cfb and the humid subtropical climate Cfa.
As a result, it has balmy warm, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. The winters are very mild considering the city's latitude, being as mild as locations located much further south in the Mediterranean Basin.
On the other hand, the nights are very mild, due to the fairly high temperature of the sea in summer. In the winter, frosts and snowfalls are extremely rare and generally occur once or twice every ten years.
One of Monaco's main sources of income is tourism. Each year many foreigners are attracted to its casino and pleasant climate. The state retains monopolies in numerous sectors, including tobacco and the postal service.
It is still, however, a monopoly. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas. Monaco is not a member of the European Union.
However, it is very closely linked via a customs union with France and, as such, its currency is the same as that of France, the euro. Before , Monaco minted its own coins, the Monegasque franc.
Monaco has acquired the right to mint euro coins with Monegasque designs on its national side. The plan for casino gambling was drafted during the reign of Florestan I in Under Louis-Philippe's petite-bourgeois regime, however, a dignitary such as the Prince of Monaco was not allowed to operate a gambling house.
The House of Grimaldi was in dire need of money. The towns of Menton and Roquebrune , which had been the main sources of income for the Grimaldi family for centuries, were now accustomed to a much-improved standard of living and lenient taxation thanks to the Sardinian intervention and clamoured for financial and political concession, even for separation.
The Grimaldi family hoped the newly legal industry would help alleviate the difficulties they faced, above all the crushing debt the family had incurred, but Monaco's first casino would not be ready to operate until after Charles III assumed the throne in The Blancs opened Le Grand Casino de Monte Carlo in and the casino benefited from the tourist traffic the newly built French railway system created.
The most recent [ when? Monaco has high social-insurance taxes, payable by both employers and employees.
Monaco has never levied income tax on individuals ,  and foreigners are thus able to use it as a " tax haven " from their own country's high taxes, because as an independent country, Monaco is not obligated to pay taxes to other countries.
The absence of a personal income tax has attracted many wealthy "tax refugee" residents from European countries, who derive the majority of their income from activity outside Monaco.
Celebrities , such as Formula One drivers, attract most of the attention but the vast majority are lesser-known business people.
However, due to a bilateral treaty with France, French citizens who reside in Monaco must still pay income and wealth taxes to France.
Unlike classic tax havens, Monaco does not offer offshore financial services. The report underlined Monaco's lack of co-operation regarding financial information disclosure and availability.
In , Monaco went a step further and secured a place on the "white list" after signing twelve information exchange treaties with other jurisdictions.
However, difficulties have been encountered with Monaco by countries in international investigations on serious crimes that appear to be linked also with tax matters.
Also in , a report by the French parliamentarians Arnaud Montebourg and Vincent Peillon stated that Monaco had relaxed policies with respect to money laundering, including within its casino, and that the government of Monaco had been placing political pressure on the judiciary so that alleged crimes were not being properly investigated.
Another treaty that was made with France, in , contained a clause providing that, in the event that the Grimaldi dynasty should become extinct, Monaco would become an autonomous state under French protection.
A revision to the constitution in added females and their legitimate children to the line of succession. In the Grimaldi family commemorated years of rule, and in Prince Rainier III marked 50 years on the throne.
Upon his death in April , he was succeeded by his son, Albert ; Albert formally assumed the throne on July 12, The principality joined the United Nations in Though not a member of the European Union EU , Monaco phased out the French franc for the single European currency of the euro by A compromise was reached by which French citizens with less than five years residence in Monaco were taxed at French rates and taxes were imposed on Monegasque companies doing more than 25 percent of their business outside the principality.
The principality was removed from the blacklist in after committing to OECD transparency standards. In he appointed instead a national assembly.
The aforementioned crisis of with France led him to restore the National Council and to grant a new, liberal constitution.
The council comprises 18 members, elected by universal suffrage for a term of five years. Government is carried on by a minister of state who must be a French citizen and three state councillors acting under the authority of the prince, who is the official chief of state.
Legislative power is shared by the prince and the National Council. Since the judicial system has been based on that of France; since the highest judicial authority has been the Supreme Tribunal.
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